Election process in India

What are the 4 steps in the Election Process in India?

A democratic system is one in which the people rule over the people. It is impossible for anyone to gather and govern each other in a large country with a population of billions. As a result, a mechanism developed in which a group of individuals chooses one individual to represent their interests. People’s interests will be ruled by this person.(ELECTION PROCESS IN INDIA)

Any adult (18 years or older) in India has the right to elect representatives through the exercise of his right to vote, according to the Indian Constitution. This right comes with no conditions fixed There was a kind of representative democracy under British law as well, but the right to vote was limited to only one-sixth of adults who would have been entitled under universal franchise. In India, the general elections started in 1951-52 since the independence in August 1947.

Our Constitution has now delegated government authority to the average citizen. Voters use their right to vote to elect members to the Lok Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies, and local governments all the way down to the Gram Panchayat.

The Election process in India :

The writers of the Constitution were well acquainted with the value of free and equal elections in a democratic society. As such, the Constitution establishes an Election Commission that is independent of the executive branch.

The Commission’s independence is guaranteed by stating that the Chief Election Commissioner can only be suspended from office by the same impeachment procedure as that of Supreme Court judges.

The Election Commission is assisted by employees from the federal and state governments. These officers and administrators from the federal and state governments are considered to be on deputation to the Commission while they are on election duty. Chief Electoral Officers help the Commission in the planning and revision of electoral rolls.

Four Steps in Election Process in India are as follows :

a) Identification of Constituency

Constituencies are specified regions where residents can vote for their members. In India, each constituency has a population that is approximately comparable in size, so the amount of varies from state to state. This also means that the number of seats (in the Lok Sabha, for example) is proportional to the state’s population.

b) Electoral Rolls Preparation

People in the districts will vote for their members or run for office themselves. The registers of electors in a single electorate are known as electoral rolls. In India, the constitution provides for a compulsory franchise. That is to say, everyone above the age of 18 has the freedom to vote and select his representative. As a result, both of their names should appear on the voting rolls of their respective jurisdictions.

c) Political Parties must be Registered &  Political Campaigns

Any qualified individual in India will run for election as long as they have a ‘ticket.’ A political party must register to run for office, and individuals must also file nominating papers. After that, an individual receives a ‘ticket’ from the political party he represents, allowing him to officially run for office. Every political party has an emblem that reflects it, such as the BJP’s lotus flower.

Each political party running for office has a distinct agenda and collection of policies. They’ll need to run election ads for two weeks to publicise them and collect votes. They should ideally do that ethically, by persuading people with good ideas and strategies. They are granted a budget cap in India, above which they are not allowed to spend any more money.

d) Preparations for Election Day

This is the day that citizens cast their votes in voting precincts for their preferred representative. People used to vote on paper ballots, but now they use EVMs (electronic voting machines) to cast their votes by merely clicking a button on their party symbol. The candidate who receives the most number of votes win’s the Election.

What is the election process in India for electing President?

The election process in India for electing the President differs significantly from that of electing members of the Lok Sabha or state legislatures. Each elector’s vote, for example, is worth in hundreds – a vote cast by a single Uttar Pradesh MLA, for example, is worth 208. A Member of Parliament’s (Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha) vote would be worth 708 and so on. However, it guarantees that each state has a fair vote in the election, according to the population, and that the party for President has the approval of the majority of voters.

The President of the India is Elected on behalf of politicians working for the benefit of the people.

Further are the steps for the election process in India for President:

1) Nomination for the election process in India for electing President-

Any candidate interested in running for President of India had until June to file their nominations. The applicants also had to pay a deposit of Rs 15,000 and send a signed list of 50 proposers and seconders.

Just one candidate should be proposed or seconded by an elector. The Election Commission enacted this legislation in 1974 after discovering that in 1952, 1957, 1962, 1967, and 1969 elections (an early election after the death in office of India’s third President, Zakir Husain), electors suggested and seconded a candidate’s nomination, and if they didn’t have “even a slim chance of being selected,” several candidates submitted their names.

Note: Parties are not permitted to issue whips in the Presidential race.

2) Voting for the election process in India for electing President-

Only in July, all elected MLAs in state and union territory capitals, as well as all elected MPs in Parliament, will be issued ballot papers (green for MPs and pink for MLAs) on whom to vote. They will also be issued special pens, which will be their only means of voting.

For every ballot list, the names of all candidates running for President will be printed. The electors will then rank their preferences for each nominee, putting a ‘1’ next to the candidate they want to be President, a ‘2’ next to the candidate they want to be President, and so on.

It is not enough for an elector to mark expectations for all Presidential candidates. He or she simply has to mark their first choice for their vote to be counted in the election

3) Sorting the ballot papers for the election process in India for electing President-

The ballot papers will be sorted by state and assigned to each candidate’s tray based on whose name appears first on the ballot. If an MLA from Uttar Pradesh chooses the Former President as his or her first choice, the MLA’s ballot paper will be placed in the former president’s tray.

Later the ballots paper’s are delivered to members of parliament and similarly distributed

4) Counting Votes for the election process in India for electing President-

The value of all the ballots on which a given candidate gets the first preference is added up to determine a Presidential candidate’s cumulative number of votes. Remember that the worth of each ballot paper is determined by who casts the ballots.

Any MP’s ballot paper (from the Rajya Sabha or Lok Sabha) is worth 708. Adding the value of each ballot paper in a candidate’s tray yields the cumulative amount of votes cast for that candidate, as well as their preferences for each candidate rather than only voting for one.

5) Choosing a nominee for the election process in India for electing President-

The one who receives more votes than a certain quota wins the Presidential race, not the person who receives the most votes. The quota is determined by combining all of the votes cast for each candidate, dividing by two, and then adding a ‘1’ to the quotient. The winner is the nominee who receives more votes than the quotation. In an event where no candidate receives more votes than the limit, the candidate with the fewest votes is discarded.

The ballot papers of the discarded candidates are then spread to the remaining candidates based on their second preference option on the ballot papers. The process of tallying each candidate’s total votes is then repeated to see if any of them polls higher than the limit. The process is repeated until one candidate’s votes exceed the limit, or until only one candidate remains after the continuous eliminations, at which point that person is declared the President of India.

6) Oath taking for the election process in India for electing President-

The Chief Justice of India, who usually administers the oath of office to the President during this election period. The President-elect will take the following oath in order to be sworn.


What is the election process in India for electing MLA?

In the Indian form of government, a Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) is a person elected to the legislature of the State government by the electors of an electoral district (constituency). The electors choose one elector from each district, who then serves in the Legislative Assembly (MLA). Each state has between seven(7) and nine(9) MLAs for each Member of Parliament (MP) in the Lok Sabha, India’s bicameral parliament’s lower house. Members continue to participate in the Delhi Legislative Assembly, the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly, and the Puducherry Legislative Assembly, which is all unicameral legislatures.

Each already has a State Legislative Council and a two-house State Legislative Assembly.

The Governor may not serve in the Legislature or Parliament, hold any profit-making office, or collect emoluments or allowances. (Constitution of India, Article 158)

The Legislative Assembly has a maximum of 500 members and a minimum of 60. Uttar Pradesh, the largest state, has 404 members of its legislature. States with limited numbers and small populations have a requirement for providing an even smaller number of Legislative Assembly members. Puducherry is made up of 33 candidates. Each of Mizoram and Goa has just 40 members. The Legislative Assembly is elected using the adult franchise, with one person elected from each electorate. Until January 2020, the President had the authority to appoint two Anglo Indians to the Lok Sabha, and the Governor had the authority to nominate one Anglo Indian member as he or she saw fit, if he or she believes they are not well represented in the Assembly.

1) Qualification for the election process in India for electing MLA-

The requirements for being a member of the Legislative Assembly are remarkably close to those for being a member of Parliament.

a) The elected person must be a Citizen from India.

b) According to Article 173 of the Indian Constitution, a member of the Legislative Assembly must be at least 25 years old, and a member of the Legislative Council must be at least 30 years old.

c) No one may become a member of a state’s Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council because they are a registered voter in one of the state’s constituencies. Many who are unable to become members of Parliament are therefore unable to serve in the state legislature.

2) Term for the election process in India for electing MLA-

The Legislative Assembly has a five-year term. On the Chief Minister’s order, the Governor can dissolve it sooner. The Legislative Assembly’s tenure may be prolonged in an emergency, but only for a maximum of six months at a time. Members of the state’s upper house are chosen depending on the relative influence of each faction in the lower house, as well as by gubernatorial nomination.

3) Power for the election process in India for electing MLA-

Making laws is the legislature’s most significant feature. The state assembly has the authority to enact legislation on any subject that Parliament cannot. Police, hospitals, irrigation, agriculture, city councils, public health, pilgrimage, and burial grounds are some of these things. Education, marriage and divorce, forests, and the conservation of wild animals and birds are only a couple of the issues that will be covered by legislation enacted by both the Parliament and the governments.

The situation is the same when it comes to money bills. Only the Legislative Assembly will introduce bills. Within 14 days after receiving the resolution, the Legislative Council will either approve it or propose amendments to it. The Assembly may or may not approve these amendments.

Aside from passing laws, the state legislature has one electoral power: appointing the President of India. This procedure involves all elected presidents of the Legislative Assembly and elected members of Parliament.

With the approval of half of the state legislatures, Parliament may amend such constitutional rules. As a result, state governments are now included in the constitutional amendment process.     

Reference –https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elections_in_India#:~:text=Members%20of%20Lok%20Sabha%20(House,stand%20in%20their%20respective%20constituencies.&text=Elections%20take%20place%20once%20in,Lok%20Sabha%20(Lower%20house).


                                                                                                               Sahil Madan Mate

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